HomeCornucopia • Word Formation 3Word Formation Practice Test 2

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capitals.

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Complete the passage with the correct form of the words in capitals.

It’s Sunday afternoon and you’re thirsty, so you open the fridge and take out a bottle of colorless, flavorless liquid. You push a button on the side to select the color “green” and the flavor “strawberry”, then others for added vitamin C and omega-3 oil and a touch of caffeine to wake you up. You then put the drink in the microwave, which activates (1)  (SCOPE) small nano-capsules – each one about 2,000 times smaller than the width of a hair – containing the necessary chemicals for your choice of drink. They will dissolve while the other potential flavors and (2)  (ADD) remain encapsulated, destined to pass (3)  (HARM) through your system.

This might sound like some kind of creation from “Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory”, but there are already a few hundred “nanofoods” currently on the market and something approaching this fictional drink is (4)  (REPUTE) already in development by a major food company. In fact, a great deal of research is currently taking place to change our food on this minute or “nano” scale. This work ranges from the design of tiny sensors, which can detect when food is about to spoil, to packing fatty foods ordinarily low in nutritional value with vitamins and (5)  (ABLE) them to help you to lose weight. Furthermore, nutrients normally broken down in the stomach can be “instructed” to remain encapsulated until they reach the intestine where they are absorbed straight into the (6)  (BLOOD) where they are needed.

However, the very fact that such tiny particles – even smaller than a virus – can (7)  (PASS) the body’s own defense mechanisms is concerning some scientists, because the effects of this are still largely (8)  (KNOW). Not only this, but the (9)  (SPECTRUM) of the issues surrounding genetically modified (GM) food still looms large, and companies are understandably afraid of public (10)  (TRUST). Perhaps science therefore still has a way to go before you will truly be able to program your own drink.

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Complete the passage with the correct form of the words from the list below.

credit • cut • imply • legate • normal • pack • pale • print • relevance • vulnerable

Imagine that you are Michael Jordan. You’ve practiced your basketball skills with dedication, worked hard on your fitness and generally had a rich, fulfilling and successful life. Now imagine that everything you have achieved could be passed on to your children. This is actually a 19th century idea which was (1) by Darwin’s theory of evolution, classical genetics, and finally the discovery of DNA in 1963. This neat molecule, carrying the code to life in conveniently (2) sequences called genes, seemed to prove that only a genetic characteristic such as eye color could be inherited. Life experiences, in other words, were (3) . But a diverse group of scientists is now coming up with convincing evidence to suggest that inheritance may not be quite so (4)  as classical geneticists would have us believe. This idea is called ‘epigenetics’.

Epigenetics is the idea that, in terms of inheritance, the gene has a ‘memory’ of an event. You can be exposed to something in one generation that is captured or (5) , which can then exist for four or five generations, maybe more. Studies carried out in the 1980s, for example, indicated that if food was limited at a key point in a grandparent’s file, it could epigenetically affect how long their grandchildren lived. Another study found that people who had been exposed to something really (6) in their life, such as living through a terrible war, showed marker of a stress hormone, cortisol, in their saliva. It was then discovered that many of their children already had (7) high levels of cortisol by the age of one. In other words, it seems their children inherited (8) .

The (9) of epigenetic changes to DNA are absolutely massive and are completely at odds with traditional genetics. Although scientists still have not figured out exactly what triggers epigenetic responses, it may be that our (10)  to future generations is greater than we ever imagined.

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