HomeCornucopia • Word Formation 3Word Formation Practice Test 4

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capitals.

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Complete the passage with the correct form of the words in capitals.

Despite falling far short of the creations (1)  (VIEW) by writers and filmmakers, robots have made remarkable progress in recent years. Take Grace for example. This technological marvel impressed researchers at the annual meeting of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence when she was dropped off at the entrance and found her own way to the registration booth where she signed up for the conference. Once (2)  (SIGN) a lecture room, she then proceeded by elevator to the room, indulging in a little small talk on the way, and at the (3)  (POINT) hour thrilled an avid audience with a lecture about herself. Admittedly, Grace is a(n) (4)  (LUSTRE) exception, yet other experimental robots have performed effectively as interactive museum tour guides and show considerable promise as nursing home assistants.

Nevertheless, for all the optimism shown by robotics experts, there is still one essential problem to (5)  (COME): mobility. Robots like these travel on three or four wheels that maintain the robot in a stable position even when at rest. The broad body, low centre of gravity and wide wheelbase this (6)  (NECESSARY), however, greatly restricts the robot’s movement in the (7)  (DICTATE) human habitat of doorways, furniture and, of course, people. To traverse such an environment requires the ability to turn in any direction and, at times, on the spot.

To counter this, Carnegie Mellon University researchers have developed the ‘ballbot’: a robot that balances on a single (8)  (URETHANE) metal sphere. (9)  (CONTENT), (10)  (BATTERY) and omnidirectional, the ‘ballbot’ is the approximate height and width of a person, which allows it to maneuver in light spots its wheel-bound (11)  (CEDE)  would find impossible. (12)  (CURRENT), other research teams are in the process of developing two-wheeled robots that, although not omnidirectional like the ballbot, evince greater (13)  (AGILE) outdoors. It may still be a long way off, but research teams worldwide are working intensively towards the ‘social robot’: that autonomous, (14)  (THINK), fully-interactive mechanism so (15)  (LOVE) of film and fantasy.

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Complete the passage with the correct form of the words from the list below.

capable • find • level • licit • protect • round • shape • sophomore • source • speed • surge • tech • timid • trace • venue

Internet security struggles to keep pace with a constantly evolving technology; criminals, however, are always one step ahead. Wireless data technology, or Wi-Fi for short, has (1) the way the world goes online, allowing (2) Internet access no matter where you are. This (3) convenience, however, is a boon to the criminal fraternity. When you send and receive using Wi-Fi technology, these signals radiate throughout the (4) area and can be (5) by the devious equipped with (6) software that even allows them to record dozens of transmissions at once.

One reason for this (7) in hacking is that Wi-Fi defense systems are not as (8) as wired network protection, which has benefited from years of research and development. The relative ease of obtaining credit card and bank details from (9) signals has encouraged a new generation of hackers, many of whom include spammers branching out into fresh (10) of enterprise. Not only are criminals abusing the system, but private investigators are also getting in on the act for the same reasons: it doesn’t demand (11) skills and the hacker is safely out of sight. The culprit is essentially (12) as the antenna that steals the signal might be more than a kilometer away. From the anonymity of his own home, the criminal can now reap the benefits of the (13) mentality.

Prevention of these crimes is largely in the hands of the buyers and sellers of the equipment. Wi-Fi routers are sold with encryption technology and in many cases this is on by default at the point of purchase, but not always. The main problem is that many consumers are (14) by the technology and are just happy to have it work without wanting to further complicate their lives by figuring out how encryption functions and actually switching it on. Of course, this is exactly the kind of attitude that makes life easier for (15) criminals and tougher for those poor individuals who have to stop them.

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