HomeCornucopia • Word Formation 3Word Formation Practice Test 5

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capitals.

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Complete the passage with the correct form of the words in capitals.

The discovery of Earth-sized worlds is of (1)  (FUND) significance to the teams of astronomers who scan the far reaches of space. Ever since the (2)  (VEIL) of 51 Pegasi b in 1995, when giant planets were (3)  (FIRM) to exist (4)  (ORB) other stars, astronomers have been (5)  (FINE) their techniques and developing new (6)  (INITIAL) to track down other Earths. Now European scientists believe that such a(n) (7)  (MARK) discovery could be within their grasp, years earlier than expected. The reason for their optimism is COROT.

This space telescope spots planets by detecting when they block light in front of their parent star. What has really got scientists excited is that the telescope is already performing better than expected. By the time the data preparation software is perfected, the equipment may even be 20-30 times more sensitive than its design (8)  (SPECIAL), taking the quest for a new Earth into an entirely different league. Astronomers will no longer be limited lo finding super-earths, planets five to ten times the mass of our own, but will have the facility to (9)  (POINT) smaller Earth-size planets. Three super-Earths have been found so far using (10)  (GROUND) telescopes. The first was too hot to support life, the second too cold, but the third, Gliese 581c is the first known planet outside our solar system where conditions might be right for life. It has an estimated mean temperature of between 0° and 40°C and water would thus be liquid.

The COROT learn is now actively (11)  (PLANET) and it is not alone. The ESA (European Space Agency) has a(n) (12)  (FLOAT) of three space telescopes and a fourth communication spacecraft that have the ability to chemically analyze the atmosphere of planets around other stars. Once (13)  (HABIT) planets are discovered, however, there is another problem to (14)  (COME). Our own solar system is just a few light years across and yet it took the Pioneer and Voyager spacecrafts decades to bridge this distance. Right now, it seems, crossing the gulf of space remains safely in the (15) (REGIMEN) of science fiction.

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Complete the passage with the correct form of the words from the list below.

change • collar • eminent • empire • flex • form • guy • invade • melt • mode • onomatopoeic • up • vary • verse • war

Even though most Americans and Canadians speak English, they do not all speak English the same way. Immigration brought a(n) (1) of dialects to the continent where many experts assumed that the influence of (2) literacy and mass media were in the process of leveling regional (3) . However, it now appears that the contrary is true with local identity and other social forces exerting an even stronger influence than TV on how dialects evolve.

Bill Labov, widely regarded as the founding father of sociolinguistics, has charted all the major dialects spoken across the North American continent, some of which have remained (4) for the past fifty years. He cites Brooklynese as a prime example of pure (5) New York speech from the nineteen-fifties. (6) features of their pronunciation include the raised a in words like past, the aw sound in words like coffee, and the dropped r in words like water. Far from originating from the (7) background, Labov maintains that the city’s dropped r derives from posh British speech. Prior to the Second World War, it was regarded as the sound of the (8) class, but with the loss of Britain’s (9) status in the (10)  period, it ceased to be regarded as ‘prestige speech’. Nowadays, such verbal (11) are used as social markers (12) with the working class; television characters, such as Tony Soprano, quite often use Brooklynese to evoke their (13) milieu.

According to Labov, the most extreme change in the US is taking place in the Chicago area where the (14) eah sound, heard instead of a in happened, is rapidly changing a number of other sounds around it. This ‘Northern Cities Shift” is (15) the Inland North dialect which used to be the model for standard American pronunciation. Soon, even those who pride themselves on precise speech may be wondering what ‘heahppened’ to the language.

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